|Misericordia University||Dr. Steve's "Help with APA" Page|
Citing Works in the Text of the Paper
Regardless of whether the source is from a book, a newspaper, a journal, or an online source, it is cited in the same way. The authors' names and year of publication are listed together. In referring to the work of the same authors a second time nearby in text (e.g., in the same paragraph), just list the authors' names without the year.
One way that educational technology can enhance learning is by capturing and holding the attention of the learners (Broskoske & McCann, 2014).
If the source has three or more authors, list all of the authors the first time you cite the source. All other times, just list the first author's name followed by et al., followed by the year of publication. Example:
|1st citation: (Brown, Smith, Jones, Barney, & Pinkham, 2007)|
future citations: (Brown et al., 2007)
If citing multiple articles for one idea, list the authors and the year of the publication in alphabetical order, separated by a semicolon. Example:
|(Brown et al., 2007; Campione & Brown, 2001; Perkins & Salomon 2009)|
If using a direct quote that is less than 40 words, the author's name should be followed by the year of publication in parenthesis, followed by the page on which the quote can be found.
|As noted by Gusky (1994), "Advances in cognitive science have compelled educators to acknowledge how complex learning is and how diverse are the means needed to assess learning fully and fairly" (p. 51).|
If using a direct quote that is 40 words or more in length, the author's name should be followed by the year of publication in parentheses. The page citation is provided in parentheses at the end of the quote, after the period of the last sentence of the quote. The entire quote is indented one inch on the left side. Quotation marks should not be used. The entire quote is double-spaced. Example:
|Means and Olson (1994) further elaborated on educational reform as follows:|
|       ||The efforts seek to move classrooms away from conventional didactic instructional approaches, in which teachers do most of the talking and students listen and complete short exercises on well-defined, subject-area-specific material. Instead, students are challenged with complex, authentic tasks, and reformers are pushing for lengthy multidisciplinary projects, cooperative learning groups, flexible scheduling, and authentic assessments. (p. 15)||       |
Listing Works in the Reference Section
Author (year of publication). Title. Journal name, volume, (issue), page numbers. doi:[document object identifier]
|Holley, D. & Oliver, M. (2010). Student engagement and blended learning: Portraits of risk. Computers & Education, 54 (3), 693-700. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.035|
a) What if no DOI is listed for an article?
If no DOI [document object identifier] is listed, add the following instead: Retrieved from [URL]
(The URL should be a permanent direct link to the article.)
b) What if no author is listed for an article?
If no author is listed, move the title of the article to the traditional spot where the author is usually listed.
|Student engagement and blended learning: Portraits of risk. (2010). Computers & Education, 54 (3), 693-700. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.035|
Author (year of publication). Title. Retrieved [date] from [source].
Note: If no date of publication is available on the Web page, list n.d. (for "no date").
|Broskoske, S. L. (n.d.). Searching the Internet. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://users.misericordia.edu//ted121/2search.html|
Title of entry. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from [URL]
|Generally accepted accounting principles. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generally_accepted_accounting_practice|
Author (year of publication). Title. Journal name, volume, (issue), page numbers.
|Cumming, J., & Maxwell, G. (1999). Contextualising authentic assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 6 (2).|
Author (year of publication). Title of book. City, State: Publisher name.
|Creswell, J. (1994). Research design: Qualitative & quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.|
Author of section of book cited (year of publication). Title of section of book cited. In Editor's name (Ed) Title of edited book (page numbers of chapter). City, State: Publishers name.
|Means, B. (1994).Using technology to advance educational goals. In B. Means (Ed.) Technology and education reform: The reality behind the promise (pp. 1-22). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.|
Author (year, month day of publication). Title. Newspaper name, section and page numbers.
|Levinson, A. (2000, March 12). Older applicants playing big role in growth of recent college classes. The Times Leader, p. A15.|
When preparing a paper in APA format, remember these general hints:
For More Information
For access to APA resources and for more information,
Help with APA main page.
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